Ade Malsasa Akbar contact
Senior author, Open Source enthusiast.
Friday, May 15, 2020 at 22:09

Here is a complete user resource to learn Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa from the basics. This page informs you things you need and want to know about using computer with Ubuntu divided in ten sections: the knowledge of operating system itself, how to install and upgrade it, the Ubuntu basics for your daily computing, software installation, working with LibreOffice, how to print and scan, terminal commands, applications recommendation, and more readings. There are also ebooks downloadable below. I hope this big list helps anybody starting with Ubuntu in 2020 and even starting with using computer as well. Welcome to computing without virus and antivirus powered by free, libre, and open source software. Have successful works with Ubuntu!  

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1. Ubuntu Versions

  • 12.04 Precise Pangolin released in 2012
  • 12.10 Quantal Quetzal
  • 14.04 Trusty Tahr released in 2014
  • 14.10 Utopic Unicorn
  • 16.04 Xenial Xerus released in 2016
  • 16.10 Vivid Vervet
  • 18.04 Bionic Beaver released in 2018
  • 18.10 Cosmic Cuttlefish
  • 20.04 Focal Fossa released in 2020

Names above are the releases of Ubuntu since version 12.04 up to 20.04 with the bold ones LTS and regular ones Regular versions. What you need to know are that Ubuntu releases twice a year in April and October (hence 04 and 10) and releases an LTS version once two year always in the year with even number (hence 16, 18, 20) and every single release has a name given alphabetically like Focal Fossa after Disco Dingo after Cosmic Cuttlefish. So, for example in this article alone, you are supposed to know that Ubuntu 20.04 and Focal Fossa are the same thing. Now you learn about several terms of Ubuntu:

  • LTS - Long Term Support, the Ubuntu version that numbered with both numbers even and released once in two years and supported officially at least for 5 years. For example, the bold text above are LTS versions.
  • Regular - Regular Release, the Ubuntu version that is released other than LTS and supported for nine months. For example, the plain non-bold text above are the Regular versions.
  • Support - when Ubuntu says support it means security updates and software bugfixes and repository availability. For instance, once a version reached end of support lifespan, the repository will no longer available and moved to old-archive server without update anymore permanently.
  • Repository - half of Ubuntu, which is the center of software following each Ubuntu version. Other operating systems namely Windows and macOS do not have repository.

2. Install Guide

  • [Where to Download] [Torrenting] - you need these to find out where the links to download Ubuntu 20.04 LTS and how to do that in the fastest way which is using torrent method.
  • Make Bootable USB - this is a requirement to install Ubuntu operating system. 
  • How To Install - step by step to get Ubuntu 20.04 LTS into your computer plus UEFI/BIOS plus internal/external hard disk drive plus dualboot instructions.
  • What to do after installing - suggestions after having a new computer with Focal Fossa.

3. Upgrade Guide

  • Upgrade by Command Lines - step by step with explanations to upgrade from 16.04 to 18.04 (LTS to LTS) with a lot of pictures applicable to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS too.
  • Upgrade by GUI - step by step to do upgrade Ubuntu easily without Terminal.

4. Ubuntu Basics

  • Part 1 - what is Ubuntu and how is the versioning, using the desktop, using the window and its control buttons, and multitasking.
  • Part 2 - using file manager for basic folder navigation such as selecting, copying, deleting, searching; hotkeys that help you; sorting and show hidden files; and finally open a folder in terminal.
  • Part 3 - system settings, system monitor, installing software, and installing desktop widgets:: switch wallpaper, panel to bottom & autohide; see running process names and kill one, see CPU and RAM usages; install more applications with commands; install gnome shell extensions like netspeed.
  • Ebook - the collection of three parts in one book (PDF).

5. Software Installation

  • Part 1 - the most basic Dpkg command lines to install software package manually.
  • Part 2 - the Apt command lines to install package automatically.
  • Part 3 - sources.list settings: you can change where to get software from either in nearby your own country or far beyond.
  • Part 4 - adding PPA the third-party software repository.
  • Part 5 - the graphical application to do all parts above easily and user-friendly.
  • Ebook - all these parts in one ebook (PDF).

6. Ubuntu Office Suite

Ubuntu brings the best office suite named LibreOffice in which a replacement to the proprietary microsoft word and co.

7. Terminal

  • Part 1 - navigation: the basic of the basics everybody should start with: pwd and cd and ls commands.
  • Part 2 - navigation plus plus: this involves learning to copy, rename, delete, create files and folders.
  • Part 3 - combination: two commands can be combined with pipelining and redirection methods. This is a thing special only to Unix family systems like Ubuntu.
  • Part 4 - text editing: terminal is a powerful tool to edit configurations and make text documents thanks to GNU Nano. 
  • Part 5 - reading manuals and helps: Ubuntu is a big library already containing every and all of your programs's documentation you can read and print easily by learning this.
  • Part 6 - installing software with Apt command lines.
  • Part 7 - managing Personal Package Archive to get more software.

8. Printing and Scanning

  • How To Detect a Printer - awesomely, many printers are detected automatically without "Driver CD".
  • How To Print - step by step to print out document to paper with Ubuntu.
  • How To Scan - step by step to scan document out of paper and save it as digital document.

9. Applications

  • Academic - among them are Zotero reference/bibliography manager, LibreOffice, and more.
  • Recommended Apps - among them are chm ebook viewer, cd burner, programming i.d.e., and many more.
  • Graphic Design Tools - several among them are Inkscape to replace coreldraw, GIMP to replace photoshop, Krita to replace paint shop pro, Synfig Studio to replace macromedia flash mx.
  • XAMPP - to turn your desktop computer into a server which in turn can run a website on it. Required to install WordPress and similar server software.
  • XAMPP + WordPress - all in one tutorial to make website in your own local computer.

10. AppImages

When one says "AppImages" one talks about portable applications on GNU/Linux platform you already accustomed with one click and run without installation. Fortunately, many popular free software apps are now available as AppImages, for example LibreOffice dan Inkscape. No worry anymore to try new versions or about breaking your system to have a new app.

  • Using an AppImage - how to run a computer program with .appimage format on Ubuntu.
  • Graphic Design - list of portable applications for drawing and photo retouching like GIMP, Inkscape, Krita, etc.
  • Video Editing - list of portable applications like Kdenlive Video Editor, OpenShot, FlowBlade, etc.
  • Text Editing and Programming - list of portable versions of Geany IDE, Emacs, GVim, KDevelop, etc.

Ubuntu Links

  • Wiki - official Ubuntu user guide built by Canonical community.
  • Help - official documentation with full ebooks and full web pages from Canonical.
  • Canonical - company behind Ubuntu.
  • - place to join the worldwide community and ask questions and have friends.
  • - place to ask questions and get answers in straightforward ways.
  • Community - place to meet Ubuntu Developers themselves and see them discussing the development, improvements, and new technology creations for Ubuntu.
  • Wikipedia Entry - information about Ubuntu flourished in one Wikipedia page with citations and references.
  • Distrowatch Entry - Distrowatch is the central of all GNU/Linux distros information worldwide updated rapidly and this one is Ubuntu page there.

Happy working!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.