When I'm using Linux Mint 18.1 Serena, I realized that gcc compiler can not find stdio.h header for C programming language. Apparently, this is because Linux Mint does not ship with libc6-dev package, the package that contains .h header files (including stdio.h) for C programming language. To fix this problem, just install that package
$ sudo apt-get install libc6-devand check it by recompiling your C source code.
Compiling with simple command line $ gcc -o filename filename.c gives an error.
Compiling with the same command line finished successfully.